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Clean Water Crisis in Indonesia

Indonesia-Quick Facts

Population of 0 million

1/3 of population lack sanitation

1 in 8 people lack access to safe drinking water

The Indonesian archipelago has 0 islands

Difficulty in transporting clean water from the central cities to other islands

portable water filtration system is necessary

Indonesia-Water contamination

  • Caused a loss of US$4.6 billion per year that includes health costs and cost for clean water supply
  • More children die from diarrhea caused by dirty water and lack of sanitation than malaria, measles and HIV-AIDS combined

Traditional water treatment methods

Boiling

Boiling has been widely used to disinfect water from microorganisms

The drawbacks of boiling water:

  • Requires lots of fuel and cooking equipment
  • The water can still contains some particles
  • Boiling water does not eliminate chemical pollutants and heavy metals

Chlorine is one of the chemical purifier that is widely used in the household
Chlorine is lightweight, low cost and easy to use

However, chlorine is very poisonous and adding too much can cause damage of internal organ or even death

Chemical

Advanced Water Purification Methods

  • Water purification means separating out the impurities from a water source
  • Filters used in water purification are able to separate contaminants mostly based on size
  • Most filtering elements are made of ceramic, glass fiber and hard-block carbon
  • Ceramic water filter
  • Glass fiber filter
  • Hard-block carbon

Ceramic filters have been used to treat household water

Advantages

  • Simple system and inexpensive
  • Removes water-borne bacterium
  • Production rate is 14 – 17 gallons per day just by gravity

Disadvantages

  • Not as effective against viruses
  • Does not remove chemical contaminants and colors

Due to that disadvantages reasons, ceramic filter is seldom used as a stand-alone filtering, and often times, used in conjunction with polymer membrane filter

Polymer membrane filter is effective in removing dissolved solids, viruses, chemical contaminants and heavy metals from water

Therefore, polymer membrane filter combined with ceramic filter seems to be the most advanced water purification method developed so far


Polymer membrane filter
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